Factsheets

Horses


Overview
Horses are part of an ever growing industry, with over 600,000 horses in the UK, 1.4 million riders and 5 million people with an active interest in the equine industry*. Most people acquire a horse out of choice, so if you make this decision you should think carefully before going ahead. A horse needs lots of love and care, including regular worming, vaccinations and dental care. Owning a horse is time consuming and can be costly; not only will you will need to consider where you will keep your horse, you must also consider the ongoing costs of owning a horse which include accommodation, bedding, feed and healthcare.

In the unlikely event that your horse goes missing it is going to be very difficult for anyone to know who it belongs to, unless your horse carries some form of permanent identification. It is wise to get your horse microchipped or freezemarked, this will avoid heartache in the long run, should your horse go missing or is stolen.

Horses are herd animals, and thrive on being together with other horses. Don’t forget that your horse will need somewhere to graze, a stable for warmth in the winter time, a constant supply of water, feeding daily and regular exercise. It can cost hundreds of pounds a month to care for a horse, including accommodation, food, veterinary care and insurance; there will be other costs, including buying tack and rugs and extra livery charges when you go on holiday.

Horses can live into their thirties, over this time your horse will need lots of care and attention. Being able to provide all of this will ensure you and your horse make the most of your time together.

* Research conducted in 2004 by the Henley Centre for DEFRA and the British Horse Industry Confederation.

Pinworms - an unwanted irritation

Although pinworms are not generally considered harmful, they are a nuisance and irritating for the horse. If your horse is particularly itchy around its tail and anal region then it might be suffering from a pinworm burden.

What are pinworms?

Pinworms (Oxyuris equi) are small, white-grey, roundworms that live in the large intestine of the horse, attached to the intestinal wall, where they feed off the mucosal lining.

The male worms are small (less than 1 cm long), but the female worms can grow up to about 15 cm in length and have a long tail that tapers to a point, hence the name pinworm.

How do horses get pinworms?

Pinworm eggs are ingested by the horse, which are usually found on pasture (from faeces), contaminated water, feed, fences and walls.

The eggs hatch releasing L3 stage larvae into the small intestines, these then travel to the large intestine and develop into L4 stage larvae which then emerge and mature into adult pinworms. This lifecycle takes approximately 5 months. The female adults then migrate from the large intestine to the anus where they partially emerge to lay their sticky eggs on the skin around the anus.

The eggs hatch outside of the horse's body and become infective within a few days but can survive for several months unhatched!

How do I know if my horse has pinworms?

If your horse has pinworms, they will cause irritation around the anus, so you will probably notice that your horse is particularly itchy around the tail. Your horse may also try to bite and lick the hindquarters. In general, your horse will show very similar signs to a horse suffering from sweet itch.

You may also notice the eggs, which will appear as a yellow, gelatinous mass around the anus.

Your vet can perform an adhesive test where they will apply a transparent piece of adhesive tape over the anus and then examine it under the microscope to identify pinworm eggs.

Are pinworms dangerous?

Pinworms are not considered harmful to horses; they are however a nuisance and an irritant.

Be warned that faecal egg count monitoring will not show up a pinworm infestation because they do not lay their eggs internally.

Can my horse be treated for pinworms?

Pinworms are susceptible to the same drugs used during routine worming, such as moxidectin, ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel. So, by worming your horse on a regular basis, your horse should be adequately covered.

You should also wash your horse's perineal area (anus) on a regular basis to ensure the removal of any eggs that may have been deposited there by existing worms.

How can I prevent my horse from getting pinworms?

You should pay particular attention to stable hygiene, including regularly and thoroughly cleaning out feed and water buckets, as well as haynets and rugs; a heavy-duty disinfectant can be used for this. It is also wise to avoid using grooming equipment on more than one horse to avoid cross-contamination.

Regular worming with an appropriate anthelmintic (wormer) will also prevent your horse from getting an infestation.